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Citation Styles (Turabian)  

Proper formatting for citations according to the AMBS standard.
Last Updated: May 22, 2015 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates

Turabian Citation Styles Print Page

The Turabian Style Manual

Cover Art
A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Eighth Edition - Kate L. Turabian
Call Number: 808.02 T92 2013 (In Reference and General Books)
Publication Date: 2013
A detailed guide to writing a research paper as well as examples of citations for a wide variety of print and electronic resources. Latest edition of a classic.

Zotero Citation Manager

Zotero is a free online service for collecting, citing, organizing and sharing research sources.  AMBS encourages students to use Zotero.  See IT Director Brent Graber ( for assistance.

  • Zotero Citation Management
    A guide for downloading and using Zotero. Tutorials for getting citations from AMBS search interfaces.
  • Zotero
    Direct link to the Zotero website.

Citation Examples Online

AMBS uses the Turabian notes-bibliography style for citations.  Turabian is based on The Chicago Manual of Style. The sites below provide many examples.

  • Turabian Quick Guide
    Citation examples provided by the book publisher. AMBS uses Turabian's "bibliography style" so the formats to follow are N for notes and B for a bibliographic entry.
  • Turabian Citation Maker
    A free online tool for creating formatted citations.
  • Citing Primary Sources: Chicago
    The Library of Congress offers this guide for using digitized items from the library's historical collections. Examples are presented in MLA and Chicago styles for websites, cartoons, films, maps, newspapers, photographs, sound recordings and texts.

Why do I need to cite?

Citing correctly and consistently is a challenge.  Why bother?  Here are some reasons:

  1. Acknowledge the contributions of other authors.
  2. Avoid plagiarism.
  3. Demonstrate that you know the significant writings on this topic.
  4. Direct the reader to additional information.
  5. Encourage others to do further research on the topic.

Whether you use a direct quotation to your paper or rephrase someone else's idea, you should cite works from which you have drawn inspiration.  These may be texts, images, interviews or media. Keep a record of citations as you are working so you don't have to go back later and search for them. 


What's New in the Eighth Edition?

Changes are summarized in this review prepared at the Graduate Writing Center of Liberty University. 

Most changes in the eighth edition are related to formatting online resources (15.4.1). Writers are instructed to include the date accessed and a URL, preferrably a stable URL such as digital object identifier (DOI). Note in particular this statement regarding citation of books in a library or commercial database. Virtually all ebooks that the AMBS library provides are from EBSCO eBooks or Proquest ebrary, both commercial databases. 

"17.1.10 Electronic Book...If you consulted the book in a library or commercial database, you may give the name of the database instead [of a URL]..."

This example is taken from 17.1.10, p. 181:

Quinlan, Joseph P. The Last Economic Superpower: the Retreat of Globalization, the End of American Dominance, and What We Can Do about It. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Accessed November 1, 2011. ProQuest Ebrary.

Director of Library Services

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About Turabian Style

Turabian styles are slightly modified from those presented in The Chicago Manual Of Style in order to serve the needs of student writers.  The format of citations in the Chicago style may be followed if care is taken to standardize the font of footnote and endnote numbers.

How did Kate Turabian, a typist who never graduated from college, become responsible for approving the format of every dissertation at the prestigious University of Chicago?  See this tribute.


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